Oil, Gas, & Petrochemical

Ethane Pipeline 2 - Transient Analysis: Modeled a short 10" Ethane pipeline in Pennsylvania to determine the effects of various valve closures.

Refinery Shutoff Valve Closure - Transient Analysis: Modeled several flow paths and pipelines at a refinery to determine safe closure time of a new shutoff valve at a storage tank. Analyzed various fluids (Heavy Virgin Naphtha, Debutanized Naphtha, Gasoline, etc.) over a wide range of temperatures. Determined proper valve size and type minimized the amount of time required for safe closure.

Ethane Pipeline 1 -Transient Analysis: Modeled an Ethane pipeline containing a series of valves over varying elevation. Determined maximum and minimum injection pressures for varying combinations of valve closures that ensured operation below MAOP and above vapor pressure. Included the theoretical effects of a pump trip without information about the specific pump curve.

Propane Pipeline 2 - Transient Analysis: Modeled a propane pipeline containing a series of valves over varying elevation. Determined maximum and minimum injection pressures for varying combinations of valve closures that ensured operation below MAOP (Maximum Allowable Operation Pressure) and above vapor pressure. Included the theoretical effects of a pump trip without information about the specific pump curve.

4" Hydrocarbon Pipeline - Transient Analysis: Modeled a short 4" hydrocarbon pipeline in Pennsylvania to determine the effects of various valve closures.

Propane Pipeline 1 - Transient Analysis: Modeled a propane pipeline containing a series of valves over varying elevation. Determined maximum and minimum injection pressures for varying combinations of valve closures that ensured operation below MAOP (Maximum Allowable Operation Pressure) and above vapor pressure.

Vacuum Gas Oil Pipeline - Transient Analysis: Modeled a vacuum gas oil pipeline that ran from tank to a loading dock. Determined surge behavior, recommended changes to normal startup, shutdown, and emergency operations to prevent excessive surge, and sized a surge relief valve.

Ship Loading Line - Transient Analysis: Modeled a ship loading line that delivered both heavy and light crude to tankers. Analyzed surge during emergency shutdowns and the closure of an emergency release coupling. Provided recommendation for changes operation to help alleviate excessive surge.

Diesel Rail Offloading - Transient Analysis: Constructed and analyzed a transient hydraulic model of a diesel rail offloading site. Evaluated emergency shutdown conditions and determined optimal valve closure timings. Alerted client to significant hydraulic issues and sized a bladder accumulator to prevent over-pressurization.

Fuel Oil Terminal to Refinery Pipeline Surge - Transient Analysis: Determined if pipeline pressure would exceed maximum allowable operating pressure during various valve closures at a refinery. Determined if existing surge protection was adequate. 

C3 Pipeline Surge - Transient Analysis: Determined maximum and minimum pressures for a C3 pipeline during various emergency shutdown events. Analyzed various pipe sizes and pump configurations to determine if the maximum allowable pressure would be exceeded during an ESD event in the current configuration or future planned configurations.

NGL Pipeline - Transient Analysis: Performed a transient hydraulic analysis on a 14-mile-long NGL pipeline. Various valve closure rates and a loss of power scenario were analyzed. The pipeline model was calibrated to match steady flow conditions and resulted in a more reliable analysis.

Ethane Residue Blending Line - Transient and Pipe Stress Analysis: Investigated the root cause of a surge event that resulted in a broken u-bolt on an Ethane blending residue line. Performed a transient hydraulic analysis using AFT Impulse and a pipe stress analysis using CAESAR II. PMTG Provided recommendations to prevent excessive surge in the future, an analysis of the transient hydraulic forces that occurred during the surge event, and pipe support recommendation.

Fuel Oil Terminal Expansion- Transient Analysis: A fuel oil terminal in Texas underwent an expansion. PMTG was involved in sizing and establishing cracking pressures for various surge relief valves, assisting in locating surge relief valves effectively throughout the terminal, and determining automation logic for pump trips and valve closures. As part of the analysis, several different methods of surge mitigation were considered including alternative valve closure rates. This resulted in the elimination of several previously required sets of surge relief valves and a total savings of $1.25 million for the client.

Overfilling Diesel Tank - Transient Analysis: A 10 ft diameter diesel tank was evaluated in several different operating conditions to determine what vent line size, pipe and hose length, and flow rate would prevent overflow.

Gathering Line - Transient Analysis: Modeled a large crude oil gathering system including several injection points. The maximum and minimum mainline pressures resulting from several valve closures were determined.

Oil Pipeline Pump and Valve Sizing - Transient Analysis: Sized pumps and back pressure valves on a 75-mile pipeline. Determined valve closure timings during pump trip events to minimize the amount of system draining while preventing excessive surge pressures.

C2 Pipeline - Transient Analysis: Evaluated a liquid ethane pipeline that shares the same right of way with a previously defined model. Maximum and minimum flowrates were determined for steady operation and four surge scenarios were considered to prevent system overpressure and pressures dropping below the fluid flash point.

Mixed Hydrocarbon Pipeline - Transient Analysis: A previously developed hydraulic model was used to evaluate the potential that an ESD (Emergency Shut Down) valve closure would result in excessive surge pressure at the ESD inlet. To mitigate the surge pressure at the inlet of the ESD, Purple Mountain technology Group determined the maximum allowable shut off head at an upstream valve.

LPG Marine Export Terminal - Transient Analysis: Conducted a surge analysis on a liquefied petroleum gas marine export terminal used to pump liquid propane, butane, and gasoline (C5+) onto petroleum shipping vessels. Pre-existing models were used for the four different operational scenarios after being reviewed for completeness to ensure an appropriate level of detail is present for the surge analysis. 

Oil Pipeline and Pumping Stations: Phase 2 - Steady State Analysis: Added 6 more flow scenarios to a previously complete steady-state analysis over a 75-mile section of an oil pipeline. These scenarios included testing a new control valve used to throttle the system to achieve an even lower minimum flowrate that previously possible. 

Hydrocarbon Pipeline - Steady State Analysis: Developed a hydraulic model to evaluate system properties of a pipeline at various oil flow rates. The model started at a pumping station containing two pump banks and seven total pumps to allow for many different flow rate possibilities without prematurely wearing out equipment.

Petrochemical Cooling Tower System - Steady State Analysis: Developed and calibrated a hydraulic model of a Cooling Tower System. Seven total scenarios were tested including various pump layouts, piping restrictions, and cells in use. 

Oil Pipeline and Pumping Stations: Phase 1 - Steady State Analysis: Developed a hydraulic model to evaluate 21 different scenarios for fluid flow in a pipeline with 3 different injection/booster stations. Scenarios ranged from 25,500 BPD to 100,000 BPD.

Natural Gas Liquids Processing Plant/Pipeline - Transient Surge Analysis: An independent transient surge analysis was required to evaluate the general valve behavior within a liquid ethane pipeline and connection to a metering station. This includes reviewing a surge event which caused overpressure in part of the system. 

Natural Gas Liquids Processing Plant Expansion - Transient Analysis: Third phase of a natural gas liquids processing plant which expanded the previous model to include a second stabilizer and two new de-butanizers. 

Mixed Hydrocarbon Pipeline Additions - Transient Analysis: Modified a transient model to reflect additions to the 70-mile hydrocarbon pipeline and conducted a transient hydraulic analysis to determine maximum and minimum pressures during surge events.

Onshore Terminal - Transient Analysis: Developed and calibrated a transient hydraulic model for an onshore terminal. Evaluated valve closure scenarios for various movements between inbound and outbound pipelines, tanks, and ship docks.

Mixed Hydrocarbon Pipeline - Transient Surge Analysis: Developed a transient hydraulic model of a 70-mile hydrocarbon pipeline and performed a transient surge analysis scenario where all valves in the pipeline closed over a 60 second period.

Valve Manifold Hydraulic Analysis - Steady State Analysis: Constructed a hydraulic model of a standard two stream pipe system, for a valve manifold involved in a blending operation.

Natural Gas Liquids Processing Plant - Transient Analysis: Performed a transient hydraulic analysis on an NGL processing plant, under various operational scenarios.

Liquid Gas Pipeline - Transient Analysis: Using the transient multiphase modeling program OLGA, independently modeled the steady state hydraulics of the currently installed liquid and gas pipeline. This provided a better match to field data in the liquid (saturated oil and water) pipeline to the model predicted pipeline thermal hydraulics, than was determined using alternative software.

Natural Gas Cylinder Depressurization - Transient Analysis: Assessed the thermohydraulic behavior during depressurization of a cluster of compressed natural gas cylinders, to determine the maximum flow rates during depressurization of the gas cylinders for a range of cylinder / downstream pressures, and to determine the temperature / pressure behavior vs. time in the cylinder / discharge point.

Natural Gas Pipeline - Transient Surge Analysis: Conducted a hydraulic analysis of an NGL pipeline. This effort included the development of a hydraulic model including two pumping stations, the pipeline to the receiving plant, the plant piping, and a secondary delivery line. Revised developed model at a later date to reflect new piping arrangement in frac tanks.

Oil Platform - Transient Analysis: Analyzed thermal expansion during the extended lifetime of wells, and water hammer effects during wellhead valve closure.

Third Party Review of Transient Analysis - Transient Analysis: Reviewed a transient analysis for the purpose of providing feedback on modeling accuracy and effectiveness.

NGL Pipeline Booster Pump Station - Transient Analysis: Performed a steady state and transient analysis for an NGL pipeline. A previous study was updated to reflect the addition of a new lateral, as well as more recent operational and design information.

Pump Trip Model - Independent Review - Transient Analysis: Reviewed a pump trip analysis for the purpose of providing feedback on modeling accuracy and effectiveness.

Natural Gas Liquids Pipeline - Steady State Analysis: Hydraulic analysis of an NGL pipeline system including current operating conditions and planned future incorporations.

Pump Trip Analysis - Independent Review - Transient and Compressible Flow Analysis: Reviewed an AFT Impulse model to determine if accurate results were being calculated due to extensive cavitation present in the model.  Also recommended ways to mitigate the cavitation if the results were deemed accurate.

Transient Analysis - Independent Review - Transient Analysis: Reviewed the transient analysis performed on an oil sand project to ensure that the results predicted by the AFT Impulse model developed by a third party were accurately reflected.

Diluent Transfer Pipeline, Oil Sands Refinery - Transient Analysis: A model was developed and used to determine maximum pressures along a 68km diluent transfer pipeline and associated branch line for four operating cases involving block valve closure and pump trip at the two pumping stations.

Slurry Pipeline - Slurry Transportation / Transient Surge Analysis / System Review & Optimization: Ensured the client provided transient surge model properly reflected input data and results predicted. The analysis incorporated 10 different scenarios ranging from pump trips to valve closures and reviewed the effects of particles settling out of the slurry creating a restriction in the pipe, modeled by a partial valve closure.

Petrochemical Plant (Trinidad) - Steady State Analysis: Developed a hydraulic model of delivery piping to verify that supplied pumps would perform adequately. The plant refines natural gas into ammonia, urea, and ammonium nitrate.

Crude Oil Pipeline, Refinery (Ecuador) - Transient Surge Analysis: A major project in Ecuador, intended to help export crude derivatives, required a 19.5 km pipeline to transport oil from a refinery to a tank farm. A pipeline model was developed to analyze the transient effects of pump startup and shutdown. Pump inertia and performance corrections for viscosity were considered in the model.

Gasoline Pipeline - Transient Surge Analysis: Modeled the effects of pump startup and shutdown for a 2.7 km gasoline pipeline. Pump inertia was considered.

Crude Oil Transfer, Alaska Pipeline - Steady State Analysis: Modeled a new transfer pipeline and transfer pump options. Variations on oil properties were analyzed, enabling the customer to select the proper transfer pump models.

Crude and Natural Gas Gathering Systems - Steady State and Transient Surge Analyses: Conducted design investigation and verification.

Natural Gas Liquids Pipeline - Steady State and Transient Surge Analysis: Investigated pipeline steady state hydraulic expansion capabilities. Conducted analysis to predict surge pressures occurring under a variety of pump trip and valve closure cases. Modeled multiple operation configurations of pumping stations under a range of conditions. Determined control and safety control settings to eliminate overpressure.

Oil Well Piping, Offshore Well – Steady State and Transient Surge Analyses: Modeled 30,000 foot well to surface piping for an offshore oil well. A transient surge analysis was conducted to determine the magnitude of surge from a variety of valve closures during normal flow conditions along with a parametric study to determine detailed pressure profiles during “bullheading” operations.

Product Pipeline - Transient Surge Analysis: Study analyzed transient pressures in a variety of valve closures along a 204-mile long pipeline transporting gasoline and diesel. Determined minimum backpressure requirements at receiving station to provide adequate cavitation margin and identified low flow condition at one of 4 pumping stations under certain operating scenarios.

Closed Loop Cooling Water System - Transient Surge Analysis: Determined transient forces for the main pump manifold and delivery line.

Products Pipeline - Transient Surge Analysis: Analyzed a ~ 70-mile long pipeline for a variety of valve closure and associated pump trip conditions for 3 alternate fluids (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel).

Iso-Octane and Methanol Pipeline (Venezuela) - Transient Surge Analysis: Determined transient system response to various combinations of discharge valve closure and pump trip.

Raw Water System, Oil Sands Production - Transient Surge Analysis: Developed a model of a raw water supply system to evaluate transient pressures and pipe forces occurring during a variety of valve closures, pump trip and pump startup.

Refinery Main Cooling System, Oil Sands Refinery (Canada) - Transient Surge Analysis: Modeled transient system response to various pump start-up and trip and valve closure scenarios for the main cooling system of an oil sands refinery.

Diluent Pipeline, Oil Company - Transient Surge Analysis: Developed a model of 137-mile pipeline analyzing maximum pressures occurring during valve closures at several locations along the pipeline to develop preferred pressure protection scheme consisting of a combination of relief valves and pump shutdown controls.

Oil Field Sea Water Injection System Expansion & Optimization - Steady State Analysis / System Review & Optimization: Optimized the system design including pipeline sizing and pump/driver selection resulting in savings of more than $100 million. The system consisted of several pump stations with combine power in excess of 100,000 HP and interconnecting 147km high pressure (800-1000 psig) pipeline.

Sea Water System Low-Pressure Train Project, Petroleum Company - Transient Surge Analysis / System Review & Optimization: Independent review of waterhammer study and report for a Seawater System Low-Pressure Train Project.

Ethanol Transfer System, Oil Refinery - Transient Surge Analysis: Modeling and analysis of transient pressures resulting from valve closure in the 15-mile long ethanol transfer system. Modeling and analysis of transient pressures resulting from pump startup and determination of pump impeller trim required to mitigate excessive pressure.

Blowout Preventer, Offshore Oil Platform - Transient Surge Analysis: Developed models to predict the behavior of undersea blowout preventer system during transient operation.

Product Tank Farm, Oil Refinery - Transient Surge Analysis: Preliminary study of a refined product tank farm.

Gasoline Pipeline System, Product Tank Farm - Transient Surge Analysis: Preliminary study of a refined product tank farm. Conducted surge analysis of refined product tank farm.